Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), Nylon-Carbon Fiber (Nylon-CF), tensile strength, compressive strength, bending strength


Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a rapidly growing field in both the researching and the industrial world, as it produces highly customized and geometrically complex objects. The most well-known AM technology for plastics is Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), in which a thermoplastic filament is melted and extruded through a nozzle on the printing bed. A wide variety of printing parameters affect the quality of the printed objects, such as printing speed, infill density, infill pattern, build orientation, layer height, etc. In literature, there is already extended research of the impact of the printing parameters on the mechanical properties of the most common thermoplastics, such as ABS and PETG. However, the development of advanced thermoplastic materials, such as Nylon composites reinforced with carbon fibers (Nylon-CF), requires a further investigation of the effect of the printing parameters on those advanced composites. In the current study, an in-depth correlation of all the major printing parameters (infill pattern, infill density, dual line infill and printing speed) with all the major mechanical properties (tensile strength, compressive strength and bending strength) of Nylon-CF is carried out.

Author Biographies

Christodoulou Ioannis T., National Technical University of Athens, Greece

PhD Candidate, A graduate of Mechanical Engineer School, NTUA Greece. Passionate about Engineering and Rapid Prototyping. Interest in Fields of Aerospace Engineering, Manufacturing Technology, 3D Printing, Biomedical Systems Design.

Alexopoulou Vasiliki E., National Technical University of Athens, Greece

PHD Student at National Technical University of Athens, Greece. Her goal is to obtain a PhD in Manufacturing Technology. Her research interests are focused on multiscale study and modeling of laser-material interaction and its application in Manufacturing Processes (SLM, SLS, EBM, …).

Markopoulos Angelos P., National Technical University of Athens, Greece

Associate Professor, Manufacturing Technology Division, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens. University Teaching Experience 1) School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (Associate Professor in Manufacturing Technology Division, 2021-today) 2) School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (Assistant Professor in Manufacturing Technology Division, 2016-2021) 3) School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (Lecturer in Manufacturing Technology Division, 2014-2016) 4) School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (Micro and Nanoprocesses, 2005-2014, Researcher) 5) School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly (Introduction to Workshop Technology, CNC Machine-Tools, 2007-2008) 6) Hellenic Air Force Academy (Introduction to Workshop Technology, Mechanical Drawing, 2007-2008)


M. S. Alsoufi, A. El-Sayed, and A. E. Elsayed, How Surface Roughness Performance of Printed Part Manufactured by Desktop FDM 3D Printer with PLA+ is Influenced by Measuring Direction, Am. J. Mech. Eng., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 211–222, 2017, doi: 10.12691/ajme-5-5-4.

A. Rashid, Additive Manufacturing Technologies, CIRP Encycl. Prod. Eng., pp. 1–9, 2019.

S. Vyavahare, S. Teraiya, D. Panghal, and S. Kumar, Fused deposition modelling: a review, Rapid Prototyp. J., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 176–201, 2020, doi: 10.1108/RPJ-04-2019-0106.

K. Rajan, M. Samykano, K. Kadirgama, W. S. W. Harun, and M. M. Rahman, Fused deposition modeling: process, materials, parameters, properties, and applications, vol. 120, no. 3–4. Springer London, 2022. doi: 10.1007/s00170-022-08860-7.

O. S. Es-Said, J. Foyos, R. Noorani, M. Mendelson, R. Marloth, and B. A. Pregger, Effect of layer orientation on mechanical properties of rapid prototyped samples, Mater. Manuf. Process., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 107–122, 2000, doi: 10.1080/10426910008912976.

K. M. Ashtankar, A. M. Kuthe, and B. S. Rathour, IMECE 2013-63146, pp. 1–7, 2016.

L. Baich, G. Manogharan, and H. Marie, Study of infill print design on production cost-time of 3D printed ABS parts, Int. J. Rapid Manuf., vol. 5, no. 3/4, p. 308, 2015, doi: 10.1504/ijrapidm.2015.074809.

K. Durgashyam, M. Indra Reddy, A. Balakrishna, and K. Satyanarayana, Experimental investigation on mechanical properties of PETG material processed by fused deposition modeling method, Mater. Today Proc., vol. 18, pp. 2052–2059, 2019.

D. Yadav, D. Chhabra, R. Kumar Garg, A. Ahlawat, and A. Phogat, Optimization of FDM 3D printing process parameters for multi-material using artificial neural network, Mater. Today Proc., vol. 21, pp. 1583–1591, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2019.11.225.

R. Srinivasan, W. Ruban, A. Deepanraj, R. Bhuvanesh, and T. Bhuvanesh, Effect on infill density on mechanical properties of PETG part fabricated by fused deposition modelling, Mater. Today Proc., vol. 27, pp. 1838–1842, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.03.797.

E. V. De Toro, J. C. Sobrino, A. M. Martínez, and V. M. Eguía, Analysis of the influence of the variables of the fused deposition modeling (FDM) process on the mechanical properties of a carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide, Procedia Manuf., vol. 41, pp. 731–738, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.promfg.2019.09.064.

J. León-Becerra, M. Á. Hidalgo-Salazar, J. P. Correa-Aguirre, O. A. González-Estrada, and A. D. Pertuz, Additive manufacturing of short carbon filled fiber nylon: effect of build orientation on surface roughness and viscoelastic behavior, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 130, no. 1–2, pp. 425–435, Jan. 2024, doi: 10.1007/s00170-023-12503-w.

F. Sedlacek and V. Lašová, Additive Manufacturing of PA6 with Short Carbon Fibre Reinforcement Using Fused Deposition Modelling, Mater. Sci. Forum, vol. 928, pp. 26–31, Aug. 2018, doi: 10.4028/






Addition technologies in mechanical engineering